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No 28
Vol. 28 No. 7
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This paper is a cultural analysis of fear as a cultural problem in contemporary Iran. This research intends to de-familiarize the function and situation of fear in the processes of Iranian contemporary modernization and change. This paper examines the question of: how do modernizations processes consisting of urbanization, nationalization, bureaucratization, and technologization can impacted on the experience of fear in contemporary Iran. Here we diagnose three patterns of fear as structural fear in contemporary Iran including the historical, mythological and tribal fears as the residual pattern, and finally the urban, political and technological fears as the dominant pattern, and the cultural, mediatized and digital fears as the emergent pattern. This study has been done according to a cultural problemology approach that was developed by the writers of this paper; which is a combination of Foucault's genealogy and Raymond William's critical theory of mechanism of cultural change. The data used in this study are collected from the existing researches on insecurity in Iran. A secondary analysis method was implemented to analyze the data. To do so, first we gathered research texts and according to our theoretical and research aims we examined and analyzed them. This study shows fear is a pervasive social phenomenon in contemporary Iran. It differs from fear in pre-modern Iranian society. Here we deal with some modern types of fear such as gender related fears, urban fears, media fears, and global fears. Also, this study shows that there is a significant difference between Iranian real experiences of fear from their feeling of fear.
Keywords : feeling of fear ، problem of fear ، urban fear ، cultural fear ، global fear ،
Finding the community of justice, have been forever aspirations and dreams of all the thinkers, justice scholars, and freedom seekers of history. Imam Ali’s justice-oriented government is the mirror of the whole form of the manifestation of justice, and the realization of the Alawite justice community depends on identifying and explaining the components of the educational model that is the basis of the practical cultivation of citizens. Because the community of justice will not be realized except with people's conscious passion and participation. In this article, with an emphasis on the educational practices of Nahjul-Balaghah, a model for explaining citizenship is presented. The educational model is based on the specifications of the Alawite right oriented government. In order to provide data tailored to the field, the qualitative method and the strategy of grounded theory are used. For data analysis, open, selective, and axial coding has been used. During the three stages of data analysis, 426 concepts, 55 subcategories, and 15 general categories were presented in the form of a paradigmatic model after applying expert opinion. The integration of categories based on the existing relationships among them, around the "development of citizenship capacity development", forms a paradigmatic model that reflects the citizenship education based on the specifications of the Alawi justice-oriented government.
Aliasghar Pourezzat - Abbas Nargesian - Abbas Abbaspour - Mehrdad Bastanipour
Keywords : citizenship ، citizenship education ، Alawi upbringing ، Alawi justice oriented ،
Hermeneutics is a remedy approach for discourse and understanding in confronting with the complex and multi-dimensional concept of development. In this way, the concept of hermeneutical spiral has a basic role in creating shared understanding about development concept. In this article, with exploring thinking trend of theorists about hermeneutical circle and hermeneutical spiral, the implementation method of hermeneutical spiral has been explained, so this method can create a shared understanding in pluralistic and diverse thinking circumstance of development. Next, based on the specification of development concept, hermeneutical spiral has been presented in five stages as an approach for confronting with intellectual discontinuity. Every spiral stage included three parts of pre-understanding, activities and outputs that continually deepen the interpreter understanding. The results of hermeneutical spiral have been interpreted based on three main questions to answer the essential question of research that pursues a kind of shared understanding from development reality.
- Seyed Mehdi Alvani - Hossein Khanifar - Seyed Ahmad Movasseghi - Hamidreza Yazdani
Keywords : development understanding ، hermeneutics ، hermeneutical spiral ، hermeneutical circle ، hermeneutics and development
In recent decades we have experienced an increase in university students’ population that unfortunately presents them with a prevalence of high-risk behaviors and social deviances which is equal to misspending the society’s innovative and constituent potential that needs a lot of expenditures to deal with its undesirable complications. The aim of this study is to clarify frequencies of recognizability, geographical emphases and medicalization analyses on high-risk behaviors of Cigarette, Alcoholic Drinks and Drug Abuse among university students in Iran through a systematic review. The working method is a systematic review of available researches about this kind of high-risk behaviors during 1991 to 2016 via electronic searches in databases like “Elmnet, Irandoc, Magiran, and SID” for quantitative researches with student’s sample. Finally, 49 researches have entered the analysis and have shown an increasing trend of these behaviors among students. In addition, there was prevalence among these provinces: Southern Khorasan, Kermanshah, Kerman, Khuzestan, Tehran, Golestan, Mazandaran, Semnan and Hamedan. Medical and descriptive analyses in Medical universities have been dominating the majority of researches in Iran. So, there is a lack of sociological explanations in this area that we need to survey more accurately and deeply to explain the sociological side of these problems. We need to focus our interventions on remedial and preventative procedures on the provinces with high rates of cigarette, alcoholic and drug abuse among students.
- Ameneh Seddighian Bidgoli
Keywords : medicalization ، high-risk behaviors ، cigarette ، alcoholic drinks ، drug abuse ، university
In this paper, while explaining the concept of cultural diplomacy, its current status in Iran with the pathology approach and at the theoretical, legislative, structural, policy, management, program and functional levels have been studied. The method used in this research is a combination method using various tools such as written sources, official and valid sites, deep interviews and a questionnaire to examine the process of discourses of cultural diplomacy of Iran, the current status of cultural diplomacy of Iran And its pathology. The community under study is experts, diplomats and cultural advisers employed by the Islamic Culture and Relations Organization and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods and analyzed using SPSS 20 and LISREL 8.5 software. Using SWOT analysis model, the current status of cultural diplomacy in Iran has been investigated. The result of the analysis of the internal and external environment of cultural diplomacy shows that Iran is in the position of a conservative strategy, and it is necessary to strengthen the religious, cultural and historical coexistence, to expand cultural and economic cooperation, to train expert personnel, to review rules, strengthen coordination between different cultural organizations, and support and promote the Persian language teaching institutes & Iranian studies departments abroad.
Leila Ajdari - Ali Akbar Farhangi - Seyed Reza Salehi Amiri -
Keywords : cultural diplomacy ، public diplomacy ، SWOT analysis ،

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