Document Type : Original Article
Department of Political Science, Faculty of Law, Political Science and History, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran.
Department of political sciences, Faculty of humanities. Tarbiat modares university. Tehran. Iran.
After encountering the western civilization, Iranian society faced a big problem, and that was Iran's backwardness in the circle of modernity. The solution of Iranian intellectuals, from Mirza Agha Khan Kermani to Ali Shariati, despite many differences, was to preserve the national identity against the Western and Arab differences, or to return to the Iranian self, which was once the heart of the world; But this Iranian identification was a source of much controversy. In this research, relying on Zia Ebrahimi's theory of nationalism and based on Skinnery's method, Shadman's solution of Pahlavi era intellectuals in facing the issue of Iranian backwardness is analyzed. Dislocation nationalism considers the Arab invasion as the cause of Iran's backwardness and the way out of it is to return to the identity of ancient Iran, but civil nationalism looks for the cause of backwardness in the inefficiency and internal weakness of the society, whose solution in legalism is to preserve the identity. It sums up the national with all its diversity and the use of all capacity-building identities. Therefore, our central question in this research in the face of Shadman's thought is, what is Shadman's solution to compensate for Iranian backwardness? Shadman shows us that the way of development in the modern era is to maintain and modernize the national identity through the language tool, and the conquest of Western civilization through scientism is influenced by that. Therefore, he does not have a one-dimensional and technical view of identity and language.