The Social Question from the Perspective of the Modern Paradigm and the Postmodern(Emphasizing the Views of Marx, Durkheim, Weber and Derrida)

Document Type : Original Article


1 Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tehran

2 Ph.D. Student in Social Studies of Iran




The purpose of this article is to study and analyze the "social issue" from the perspective of the modern and postmodern paradigm. In European social thought, since the Renaissance, it has witnessed the emergence of two separate thought systems, which can be divided into two modes: "modern" and "postmodern." Each of these approaches, based on their epistemological foundations, defines the social problem in a particular way. In each of the modern theoretical and postmodern approaches, the social problem has a different definition and explanation framework. In this regard, relying on the "method of qualitative content analysis" of the social ideas of Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim and Max Weber as classical and modern thinkers of sociology and Jacques Derrida as the most important figure of post-structuralism around the concept of problem. Social has been analyzed. The results of the analysis show that from the point of view of modern social thought, social issue has an objective existence and can be discovered, explained and predicted through the science of sociology. For Derrida, however, is a socially constructed social issue that is the source of power, and there are no false and true criteria for its recognition. Modern thinkers in the field of social problem tend to "problematize" and determine the mechanism of recognition of social problem, but on the other hand, post-structuralist thinkers believe in "problem-making".