Crisis in Social Security Funds and National Security of Islamic Republic of Iran

Document Type : Original Article


1 Ph.D in Public Policy Making University of Tehran

2 Phd student islamic revolution studies. university of tehran


Social security as a part of public services delivered by governments to their citizens is one of the main factors contributing to the sustainable national security in different political regimes. Sustainability of social security depends on sound and well-functioning of the social security funds as the vital financial resources of social security.
Using the descriptive-analytical method and documents review, this study aims at finding appropriate responses to these crucial questions: (1) what threats to national security would arise from the crisis in social security funds in Iran, and (2) what measures should be adopted to confront them?
Our findings show that the crisis in retirement funds leads to some serious threats to the national security such as public disturbances, social gap and bipolarity in the society, erosion of the strong sense of national solidarity among the people, reduction of acceptability and prestige of the government, decline of the retirees' purchase power, a sense of deprivation and poverty in the society, etc. It can be concluded from the findings that some significant reforms in parametrical, systemic, and structural levels would be quite necessary to confront these multiple threats.


Main Subjects

Abdullah Khani, Ali (2003), Security Theories, Tehran: Abrar Moaser. [In Persian]
Afshar,Asadollah (2015), Security, Community, Social Security, Tehran: Safir Ardehal. [In Persian]
Ahmadi Moghaddam, Esmaeil (2010), "Social Security and Identity", Social Security Studies, Vol. 7, No. 23. [In Persian]
Ahmadi, Ali (2002), Comprehensive Security Approach; Right-Based Security, Tehran: Politics. [In Persian]
Ahmadi, Seyed Mohammad (2007), "Social Development and National Security", Journal of Social Development, Winter, No. 14, Tehran: Strategic Research Institute. [In Persian]
Akhtarshahr, Ali (2008), "Political Participation and Its Role in Ensuring National Security", Knowledge, Vol. 17, No. 131. [In Persian]
Alizadeh, Mohammad (1999), "Employment, Labor Market and Social Security", Social Security, Vol. 1, No. 2. [In Persian]
Ammareh, Mohammad (2004), Social Security in Islam, translated by Majid Ahmadi, Shiraz: Eilaf. [In Persian]
Ansari, Ahmad Reza (2002), "Economic Security and the Impact of the Insurance Industry on Its Promotion", Strategic Defense Studies, Vol. 4, No. 15. [In Persian]
Bashirieh, Hossein (2007), Teaching Political Science, Tehran: Contemporary View. [In Persian]
Baylis, John and Steve Smith (2004), The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations, translated by Abolghasem Rah Chamani, Tehran: Abrar Moaser. [In Persian]
Beetham, David and Kevin Boyle (2005), What is Democracy ?, translated by Shahram Naghsh Tabrizi, Tehran: Ghoghnoos. [In Persian]
Boroumand, Shahzad et al. (2008), Economic Security in Iran and Some Selected Countries, Tehran: Islamic Consultative Parliament Research Center. [In Persian]
Bouzan, Barri (1999), People, States and Fear, Tehran: Strategic Studies. [In Persian]
Davari Ardakani, Reza and Seyed Reza Shakeri (2009), "Political Security in Imam Khomeini's Thought", Political Knowledge, Vol. 5, No. 10. [In Persian]
Ebrahimi, Shahrooz (2000), "Evolution of the concept of security: from national security to global security", Defense Politics, Vol. 8, No. 31. [In Persian]
Eftekhari, Asghar (2013), "Security Software and the Iranian-Islamic Model of Progress", Soft Power Studies, Vol. 3, No. 8. [In Persian]
Eftekhari, Asghar (2014), "Analysis of the Pattern of Interaction and Freedom and Security", Strategic Research of Politics, Vol. 3, No. 8. [In Persian]
Ghanaei, Jamshid (2010), "Economic Security", Hidden Economy, Spring, No. 12. [In Persian]
Gharayagh Zandi, Davood (2013), "The Relationship between Social Justice and National Security: A Theoretical Framework", Strategic Studies, Vol. 16, No. 3. [In Persian]
Giddens, Anthony (2003), Beyond Left and Right, translated by Mohsen Salasi, Tehran: Scientific. [In Persian]
Gorjipour, Esmaeil (2016), Policy Documents of the Multi-Layer Social Security System, Tehran: Higher Institute of Social Security Research. [In Persian]
Hamidi, Somayyeh (2011), Formation of Social Gaps and Its Impact on Political Instability in Contemporary Iran, PhD Thesis in Political Science, Tehran: Allameh Tabatabaei University. [In Persian]
Hashtroudi, Yashar (2010), "Copenhagen School and the Security Riddle", Resalat Newspaper, 6 February, No. 7197. [In Persian]
Haskins, Dalmer (1999), "A New Design for Social Security", Social Security, Vol. 1, No. 2. [In Persian]
Hassanifar, Abdolrahman (2004), "State and Social Security in the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran", Research Journal of Imam Sadegh University, Vol. 10, No. 23. [In Persian]
Imani, Mostafa (1999), "Social Security and National Security", Social Security, Vol. 1, No. 2. [In Persian]
J. Martin, Lee (2010), The New Face of Security in the Middle East, translated by Ghadir Nasri, Tehran: Research Institute Strategic Studies. [In Persian]
Jafari, Hoda (2017), A Review of the Adequacy of Pensions in the State Pension Fund, Tehran: Saba Pension Strategies Institute. [In Persian]
Jafari, Hoda (2018), Key indicators of the labor market and its impact on pension funds in Iran, Tehran: Saba Institute of Retirement Strategies. [In Persian]
Jahan Bozorgi, Ahmad (2009), "The Role of Economic Security in Preserving the Islamic Revolution", Islamic Revolution Studies, Vol. 5, No. 16. [In Persian]
Jahanian, Nasser (2002), Economic Security, Tehran: Cultural Institute of Contemporary Knowledge and Thought. [In Persian]
Karimaei, Ali et al. (2010), "The role of Police in providing social security", Police Knowledge, Vol. 12, No. 2. [In Persian]
Karimi Maleh, Ali (2014), "Social and political security through social policy-making", Strategic Studies, Vol. 17, No. 3. [In Persian]
Khalili, Reza (2015), "The Impact of Social Gaps on Iran's National Security; In Search of an Analytical Framework", Strategic Studies, Vol. 18, No. 4. [In Persian]
Mandel, Robert (2000), The Changing Face of National Security, Tehran: Research Institute Strategic Studies. [In Persian]
Mohseni Shad, Zohreh (2016), "Insurance support for businesses during the epidemic", Donya-e-Eqtesad newspaper, dated: 26/06/2016, No. 4986. [In Persian]
Mohseni, Reza (2009), "Sociological analysis of social security and its role in reducing crime and social harms", Order and Security Research Journal, Vol. 2, No. 4. [In Persian]
Momeni, Eskandar (2015), "Conceptual Boundaries of Public Security and Socialized Security", Order and Security Research Journal, Vol. 8, No. 31. [In Persian]
Motallebi, Massoud (2007), "Principles of National Solidarity in the Constitution", Zamaneh, Azar, No. 63. [In Persian]
Namazi, Hossein (1998), "Insurance and creating economic security for the family", Insurance Research Journal, Vol. 13, No. 51. [In Persian]
Nasri, Ghadir (2011), A Theoretical Introduction to Society Security, Tehran: Institute of Humanities and Cultural Studies. [In Persian]
Nasri, Ghadir (2013), "Society Security as the Vital Core of Sustainable National Security", Security Studies, Vol. 12, No. 43. [In Persian]
Navidnia, Manijeh (2003), "Introduction to Social Security", Strategic Studies, Vol. 6, No. 19. [In Persian]
Navidnia, Manijeh (2006), "Theoretical Contemplation on Social Security; With an emphasis on the types of security", Strategic Studies, Vol. 9, No. 31. [In Persian]
Nazari, Mohammad and Peyman Akbari (2016), "Assessing the Economic Security of the Country", Future Research and Policy-Making Studies, Vol. 2, No. 1. [In Persian]
Noor Mohammadi, Morteza (2014), "Evaluation and Critique of Security Theories in the Third World", Transformation in the Humanities, Vol. 2, No. 2. [In Persian]
Obouri, Mehdi and Mohammad Rahmani (2014), Social Security, Mazandaran: Shalfin. [In Persian]
Omidi, Reza and Mona Khorshidi (2016), Social Insurance, the Necessity of Inclusive Development, Tehran: Higher Institute of Social Security Research. [In Persian]
Parhizkar, Gholamreza (2011), "An Introduction to the Concepts Related to the Islamic Theory of Security", Political Knowledge, Vol. 3, No. 6. [In Persian]
Rahbar, Abbas Ali and Farzad Souri (2016), "State and the model of desirable political security in the religious community", The State Studies, Vol. 2, No. 5. [In Persian]
Rahmatollahi, Hossein et al. (2015), "Political Security of Individuals and Its Reference in Imami Jurisprudence", Islamic Law, Vol. 12, No. 44. [In Persian]
Rashidi, Mostafa, Ali Radadi and Saeed Reza Moghadamfar (2015), "Designing a model for measuring the economic security of the country", Mobilization Strategic Studies, Vol. 18, No. 68. [In Persian]
Rasouli Saniabadi, Elham (2014), An Introduction to the Most Important Concepts and Terms of International Relations, Tehran: Tisa. [In Persian]
Ravan, Mehdi (2010), "Hardware and software mechanisms in the Achieve of social security", Security Horizons, Vol. 3, No. 7. [In Persian]
Roshandel, Jalil (1995), National Security and the International System, Tehran: Samt. [In Persian]
Saei, Ahmad (2005), "National Security in the Third World", Law and Politics Research, Vol. 7, No. 14. [In Persian]
Salehi Amiri, Seyed Reza (2013), Social Security, Tehran: Strategic Research Center. [In Persian]
Seddigh Oraei, Gholamreza (1996), "The Impact of Structural Factors on the Phenomenon of Security or Social Insecurity", Conference on Development and Public Security, Tehran: Ministry of Interior and University Jihad. [In Persian]
Shah Mohammadi, Mohammad (2014), "Political Security in Islam", Police Protection and Security Studies, Vol. 9, No. 31. [In Persian]
Shahbazi, Najafali, Behrouz Sadeghi Amrouabadi and Seyed Alireza Azizmousavi (2011), "Study of economic factors affecting social security", Security Horizons, Vol. 4, No. 12. [In Persian]
Shirzadeh, Mahin Dokht et al. (2013), Capital and Social Security, Ardabil: Mohaghegh Ardabili. [In Persian]
Tajik, Mohammad Reza (1997), "An Introduction to the Concepts and Approaches of National Security", Development and Public Security, Volume II, Tehran: Ministry of Interior. [In Persian]
Taraghi, Ali and Hassan Rostami (2009), "The desirable role of social capital in ensuring public security", Strategic Defense Studies, Vol. 11, No. 38. [In Persian]
Tasdighi, Mohammad Ali (2010), "Components of political, social and cultural security in the perspective of 1404 of the Islamic Republic of Iran", Cultural Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 43 and 44. [In Persian]
World Economy (2020), "The key to breaking the chain of corona outbreak", World Economy Newspaper, dated: 16/07/1399, No. 5004. [In Persian]
Zare’zadeh, Rasoul (2013), "Pattern of Internal Security Analysis", Security Horizons, Vol. 5, No. 19. [In Persian]
Zeinabadi, Morteza (2012), "Public and Social Security", Journal of Social Security, No. 105, Tehran: Strategic Research Center. [In Persian]